ares_getaddrinfo - Initiate a host query by name and service


#include <ares.h>
typedef void (*ares_addrinfo_callback)(void *arg, int status,
                                       int timeouts,
                                       struct ares_addrinfo *result)
void ares_getaddrinfo(ares_channel_t *channel, const char *name,
                      const char* service,
                      const struct ares_addrinfo_hints *hints,
                      ares_addrinfo_callback callback, void *arg)


The ares_getaddrinfo function initiates a host query by name on the name service channel identified by channel. The name and service parameters give the hostname and service as NULL-terminated C strings. The hints parameter is an ares_addrinfo_hints structure:

struct ares_addrinfo_hints {   int ai_flags;   int ai_family;   int ai_socktype;   int ai_protocol; };

ai_family Specifies desired address family. AF_UNSPEC means return both AF_INET and AF_INET6.

ai_socktype Specifies desired socket type, for example SOCK_STREAM or SOCK_DGRAM. Setting this to 0 means any type.

ai_protocol Setting this to 0 means any protocol.

ai_flags Specifies additional options, see below.

ARES_AI_NUMERICSERV If this option is set service field will be treated as a numeric value.

ARES_AI_CANONNAME The ares_addrinfo structure will return a canonical names list.

ARES_AI_NOSORT Result addresses will not be sorted and no connections to resolved addresses will be attempted.

ARES_AI_ENVHOSTS Read hosts file path from the environment variable CARES_HOSTS .

When the query is complete or has failed, the ares library will invoke callback. Completion or failure of the query may happen immediately, or may happen during a later call to ares_process, ares_destroy or ares_cancel.

When the associated callback is called, it is called with a channel lock so care must be taken to ensure any processing is minimal to prevent DNS channel stalls.

The callback may be triggered from a different thread than the one which called ares_getaddrinfo.

For integrators running their own event loops and not using ARES_OPT_EVENT_THREAD, care needs to be taken to ensure any file descriptor lists are updated immediately within the eventloop when notified.

The callback argument arg is copied from the ares_getaddrinfo argument arg. The callback argument status indicates whether the query succeeded and, if not, how it failed. It may have any of the following values:

ARES_SUCCESS The host lookup completed successfully.

ARES_ENOTIMP The ares library does not know how to find addresses of type family.

ARES_ENOTFOUND The name was not found.

ARES_ENOMEM Memory was exhausted.

ARES_ESERVICE The textual service name provided could not be dereferenced into a port.

ARES_ECANCELLED The query was cancelled.

ARES_EDESTRUCTION The name service channel channel is being destroyed; the query will not be completed.

On successful completion of the query, the callback argument result points to a struct ares_addrinfo which contains two linked lists, one with resolved addresses and another with canonical names. Also included is the official name of the host (analogous to gethostbyname() h_name).

struct ares_addrinfo {   struct ares_addrinfo_cname *cnames;   struct ares_addrinfo_node *nodes;   char *name; };

ares_addrinfo_node structure is similar to RFC 3493 addrinfo, but without canonname and with extra ttl field.

struct ares_addrinfo_node {   int ai_ttl;   int ai_flags;   int ai_family;   int ai_socktype;   int ai_protocol;   ares_socklen_t ai_addrlen;   struct sockaddr *ai_addr;   struct ares_addrinfo_node *ai_next; };

ares_addrinfo_cname structure is a linked list of CNAME records where ttl is a time to live alias is a label of the resource record and name is a value (canonical name) of the resource record. See RFC 2181 10.1.1. CNAME terminology.

struct ares_addrinfo_cname {   int ttl;   char *alias;   char *name;   struct ares_addrinfo_cname *next; };

The reserved memory has to be deleted by ares_freeaddrinfo.

The result is sorted according to RFC 6724 except:  - Rule 3 (Avoid deprecated addresses)  - Rule 4 (Prefer home addresses)  - Rule 7 (Prefer native transport)

Please note that the function will attempt a connection on each of the resolved addresses as per RFC 6724.


This function was added in c-ares 1.16.0, released in March 2020.

See also


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